In 1993 the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) team wrote the specification for calling command line executables on the www-talk mailing list; however, NCSA no longer hosts the specification. The other Web server developers adopted it, and it has been a standard for Web servers ever since. A work group chaired by Ken Coar started in November 1997 to get the NCSA definition of CGI more formally defined. This work resulted in RFC 3875, which specified CGI Version 1.1. Specifically mentioned in the RFC are the following contributors:
CGI Group Inc.,Conseillers en gestion et informatique more commonly known as CGI, is a globalinformation technology (IT) consulting, systems integration, outsourcing, and solutions company headquartered in Montreal, Canada. Founded in 1976 by Serge Godin and André Imbeau as an IT consulting firm, the company soon began branching into new markets and acquiring other companies. CGI went public in 1986 with a primary listing on the Toronto Stock Exchange. CGI is also a constituent of the S&P/TSX 60, and has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. After almost doubling in size with the 1998 acquisition of Bell Sygma, CGI acquired IMRGlobal in 2001 for $438 million, which added "global delivery options" for CGI. Other significant purchases include American Management Systems (AMS) for $858 million in 2004, which grew CGI's presence in the United States, Europe and Australia and led to the formation of the CGI Federal division.
CGI Federal's 2010 acquisition of Stanley, Inc. for $1.07 billion almost doubled CGI's presence in the United States, and expanded CGI into defense and intelligence contracts. In 2012 CGI acquired Logica for $2.7 billion Canadian, making CGI the fifth-largest independent business processes and IT services provider in the world, and the biggest tech firm in Canada. In 2014 CGI ranked No. 974 on the ForbesForbes Global 2000, which ranks the world's largest public companies. At the time CGI had assets worth USD $11.1 billion, annual sales of $9.9 billion, and a market value of $9.6 billion. As of 2015 CGI is based in forty countries with around 400 offices, and employs approximately 65,000 people. Canada made up 15% of CGI's client base of March 2015. 29% was in the United States, while around 40% of their commissions came from Europe. 15% was the rest of the world.
The core principle of ClickOnce is to ease the deployment of Windows applications. In addition, ClickOnce aims to solve three other problems with conventional deployment models: the difficulty in updating a deployed application, the impact of an application on the user's computer, and the need for administrator permissions to install applications.
ClickOnce-deployed applications are considered "low impact", in that they are installed per-user, not per-machine. No administrator privileges are required to install one of these applications. Each ClickOnce application is isolated from the others. This means one ClickOnce application is not able to "break" another. ClickOnce employs Code Access Security (CAS) to ensure that system functions cannot be called by a ClickOnce application from the web, ensuring the security of data and the client system in general.
Applications may be bundled with the computer and its system software or published separately, and may be coded as proprietary, open-source or university projects.
In information technology, an application is a computer program designed to help people perform an activity. An application thus differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a programming tool (with which computer programs are created). Depending on the activity for which it was designed, an application can manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these elements. Some application packages focus on a single task, such as word processing; others, called integrated software include several applications.